Criminal violence is a growing concern for citizens and policymakers across the developing world. Much existing research assumes that victims are resigned to their victimization at the hands of violent criminal actors amid absent or complicit states. I challenge the conventional wisdom and argue that not only do victims resist their victimization, but resistance actually varies in intriguing ways. Drawing on extended field research in several of Latin America's most violent settings, I show that victims engage in diverse forms of resistance that range from everyday negotiations with criminal actors to violent armed rebellion against them. To explain this variation I develop a theory that focuses on how the different types of organizational and coercive resources available to victims shape the forms of resistance available to them.
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